Yuan Chonghuan in History

  Yuan Chonghuan in History

Yuan Chonghuan (袁崇焕; 6 June 1584 – 22 September 1630) was a famed patriot and Army commander of the Ming Dynasty who battled the Manchus in Liaoning. He was Recognised to have excelled in artillery warfare and Effectively incorporated western Strategies into the East. Yuan's Army Profession Accomplished its height when he defConsumeed Nurhaci and the Manchurian army in the Primary Fight of Ningyuan. Nurhaci's Boy and AccomplishAdult malestor, Huáng Táijí, was defConsumeed by him in the Next Fight of Ningyuan. Yet, Yuan was a tragic figure, and was executed by his emperor Below Fictitious Fees which Huang Taiji deliberately Programted Towards him.

Yuan Chonghuan was born in Dongguan, Guangdong. Throughout his adolescence, Yuan Invested time travelling from City to City. It is during these journeys that he befriended A number of Jesuits and foreigners. He Experienced Used imperial examinations a Couple of Occasions with Tiny AccomplishAdult malest, but in his journeys to the M1y, he was Capable to see a Fantastic deal Far more than the Typical examiners could see. Some say that in this time, he befriended westerners and Jointly, they Invested time modifying European cannons.

He passed the imperial examinations in 1619 and was appointed to the Mild Article of magistrate in a remote Location. In 1619, the imperial Ming army was Quite badly defConsumeed by the Manchus in the Fight of Sarhu. Subsequently, the Chinese language armies EnduRed-colored AccomplishAdult malestive defConsumes and in 1622 they Have been Compelled to retrConsume to Shanhaiguan, abandoning all of Liaoning to the Manchus. Right after a Take a look at to the Top, Yuan was appointed Next-School secretary in the Board of War, promoted Nearly Instantly to secretary, and supplied with Finances for enlisting troops. (It Should certainly be noted that Yuan Do not have any formal Army Instruction at all. Of Training course, he Experienced to Analyze the Confucian Schoolics in Purchase to pass the imperial examinations. It is some sort of Mild miracle that he could Proceed from a junior civilian Awayicer to a Substantial-ranking Army commander in just a Few of Many 12 monthss.)

Yuan Chonghuan Performed harmoniously with the commander-in-chief Sunshine Chengzong (孙承宗) and pushed the Topiers steadily northward, fortifying Ningyuan (宁远) in 1623. The elderly Sunshine was an Capable commander with a Beneficial moral character and refUtilized to bribe the Emperor's eunuch. Consequently, in 1625 Sunshine was recalled and reLocationd by Gao Di (高第), who Purchaseed a Common retrConsume to Shanhaiguan, but Yuan flatly refUtilized to Go away Ningyuan. Earlier in the Following 12 months, Nurhaci led the Manchus Back Once again Throughout the Liao River. Yuan Chonghuan and his DePlaceies Effectively Kept Ningyuan with the newly-mounted and modified "Red-colored-barbarian cannon" (红衣大炮, 红夷大炮) and wounded the Manchurian Emperor, Nurhaci. As a End result of this victory, the Imperial Courtroom at Beijing appointed Yuan on 27 Feb . 1626 as the Governor of Liaodong, with Total authority to
Manage all forces Outdoors the passes. This battle was an Incredible deed BeTrigger Yuan Experienced only 9000 sOutdatediers (of whom A number of Have been Merely militia), even Even though Nurhaci's Adult males consisted of 130,000 Powerful Adult males (some say
200,000). This battle prevented China from Getting conqueRed-colored and boosted the hopes of Ming and its allies that the Manchurians Have been defConsumeCapable. It is noted that Yuan was Stated to have studied eQuite Element of the cannon for it to fire Properly at the Placement he Desired, and this is the reaBoy why Nurhaci, even Even though Nicely protected by his elite Shields in a Fairly Secure Placement, was fatally wounded. This battle was remembeRed-colored as the Fight of Ningyuan. It is Stated that after the battle, Yuan sent letters to Request the Nicely-Getting of Nurhaci, as what traditionally Chinese language Commons would do, but Nurhaci returned an insult by calling him a faker.

Throughout this time, he executed Máo Wénlóng (毛文龙), a somewhat talented commander but who Experienced a terrible moral character. SActuallyal texts have Diverse perspectives of his Measures. Many Suggestd this was a terrible Error BeTrigger Mao could Even now be Utilized to defend Towards the Manchus. Yet, Yuan As wellk in account of how Mao committed his battles. Mao's Strategies Typically Included Utilizing civilian settleAdult malests as a Protect for his troops and during the occupation, civilians EnduRed-colored treAdult malesdously. It is also Mao's fault for Utilizing Korea, Ming's ally, as a Bottom to Assault Manchuria, which End resulted in Korea Getting conqueRed-colored by Manchus as Mao Purchaseed a Common retrConsume when the Manchus enteRed-colored Korea. This angeRed-colored A number of merchants in the Beijing Region BeTrigger Mao Experienced Certainly not daRed-colored to drag Key Metropolitan areas into war even when there was a strategic Benefit. In Add-on, Mao Experienced bribe A number of eunuchs and corrupted Standards. So, Yuan Produced enemies with the most influential and corrupted Individuals in China.

Getting Benefit of Nurhaci's Passing away Later on in the 12 months, Yuan reoccupied Jinzhou. The Manchus reappeaRed-colored in June and withdrew after a Sequence of indecisive battles. (Be aware: This is Recognised as the Fight of Ningyuan-Jinzhou or the Second Fight of Ningyuan.) The campaign gave Chance for Yuan to be criticised by the Componentisans of the eunuch Standard Wèi Zhōngxián, stating that he As wellk As well Lengthy to Battle Away the "Barbarian" Manchurians, in consequence of which he retiRed-colored.

In 1628, Below a new governAdult malest, Yuan Chonghuan was reinSuggestd as Area marshal of all the forces of the northeast. He embarked on an ambitious 5 12 months Program for the Total recoQuite of Liaodong. In 1629 he was granted the Name of Senior Guardian of the Heir Apparent. The Chongzhen Emperor, the new emperor gave him his Imperial STerm and Suggestd that he would Totaly Assistance Yuan's Choices. Chongzhen emperor As wellk the reign on 1627 at the age of 16, and on 1629(at the age of 18) he appointed Yuan Chonghuan.

This time Yuan Experienced to Encounter Once again a Bigger Manchurian force (slightly above 200,000) Below Huang Taiji. This time the Manchurians Experienced incorporated A number of Far more Adult males Such as the newly surrendeRed-colored Mongols, rebel Ming armyand the conqueRed-colored Korea and various Little Says of the North. Yet, the Manchus Have been not Self-confident to Assault Jinzhou or Ningyuan Once again.

Th Manchus Altered their Tactic. They bypassed Jinzhou, Ningyuan and Shanhai Pass. They broke Via the Fantastic Hall west of Shanhai Pass and All of a sudden appeaRed-colored north of Beijing in the winter of 1629. Yuan rushed Back Once again with an elite army from Ningyuan to defend the M1y. He Accomplished Beijing only 1 or two Times Prior to the Manchus arrived at Beijing. Outside the Town wall of Beijing, he defConsumeed the Manchurian "Eight Banners" (八旗) which numbeRed-colored 1 hundRed-colored 1000. (Be aware: The Manchus failed to destroy the Imperial Ming army at the Town wall of Beijing and thus failed to Start a Immediate assault on the Town wall. So the Manchus failed in their Principal Intent of Starting a Shock Assault on Beijing. Yuan's army was not Powerful Sufficient to destroy the Manchu army. He only managed to make the Manchus fail in their Principal Intent.) As he arrived in Beijing, Rather of Getting welcome, he was heavily criticized. Some eunuchs even accUtilized Yuan of collaborating with the enemy. In Actuality, they Have been Truly tricked by Huang Taiji into Pondering that Yuan Experienced Back Once againstabbed them.

Without having A good deal Proof, the Chongzhen Emperor Purchaseed his arrest during an Job interview with the Emperor on 13 January 1630. He was accUtilized of collusion with the enemy and condemned to the "Passing away by a 1000
cuts" at Ganshiqiao (甘石桥) in Beijing. It is Suggestd the merchants, eunuchs and corrupt Standards rushed to Purchase his Entire body Components so they could Consume it. When Yuan was Requested for Final Text Prior to his execution,
he Created the poem: "A Lifestyle's Perform Continually ends up in vain; 50 % of my Profession Looks to be in dreams. I do not Be concerned about lacking brave warriors after my Passing away, for my loyal spirit will Carry on to Shield
Liaodong." (一生事业总成空,半世功名在梦中。死后不愁无将勇,忠魂依旧保辽东!) His Loved ones was also executed.

Mourning was Offered to the Common's honor Viaout most Component of the Nation and even Korea; eQuite1 regarded the fate of Ming and its allies was in boiling Drinking water with the Passing away of Yuan. His Mind, the only
recognizCapable Component after the torture, was Used Outdoors the Internal City Wall by a Town Shield, whose surBrand is She, and buried Close to Guanqu Men. The Shield's Loved ones have Shielded it from 1 Era to the Following
Actually BeTrigger. His tomb was Lately renovated to Turn out to be the Yuan Chonghuan Memorial .

Huang Taiji publicly Suggestd that he would Certainly not be Capable to bConsume Yuan in a Reasonable Gaming, thus, Generating the Chongzhen Emperor Eliminate him was the only Technique to get rid of him. Just as the Concept of Yuan's Passing away
Accomplish Huang Taiji's ears, he Altered his Suggest Brand from Jin to Qing and proclaimed himself Emperor Qing Taizong. Some historical Data Says that Huang Taiji feaRed-colored Yuan's Final Term stating his Spirit
will Continually Shield Liaodong Peninsula: As the Brand Chonghuan, Implies Undying Flames, Consists of the eleAdult malest "Fire", he Place the Term Qing, meaning cleanse, which Consists of the eleAdult malest "Water", to Rise above it;
howActually, even if this is the Circumstance, the Principal reaBoy is Most likely Simply beTrigger the "Ming" of the Ming Dynasty Consists of the eleAdult malest "Fire" By itself.


AlEven though Background Says that his Whole Loved ones was executed, in Jinyong's wuxia novel STerm Stained with Elegant Our blood (碧血剑), Yuan is survived by a Boy. The protagonist of the novel, he learns Incredible
martial arts on Mount Hua and tries to avenge his Dad's Passing away. Jinyong also Place forward a Principle by some other historians that it was the Chongzhen Emperor, not Huang Taiji, that Experienced Yuan Chonghuan Eliminateed,
and that the Chongzhen Emperor knew Completely Nicely that Yuan was not a traitor. As in the Circumstance of Yuè Fēi, Jinyong proposed that the Trigger of Yuan's Passing away was the Chongzhen Emperor's Dread of his Acceptance
with the Individuals and of his disrespect of the thr1.

His Brand was conclusively cleaRed-colored about 100 Many 12 monthss after his Passing away by the Qiánlóng Emperor, a descendant of his arch enemy, Huang Taiji, who pFantastic dealted his Passing away. This happened after Individuals Discovered conclusive Proof in Outdated archives of the
Imperial Qing court. The Manchu QianLengthy Emperor Attempted to Display Away his unusual kindness by Looking for Yuan's descendants for reward but n1 could be Discovered. Then he rewarded some descendants of Yuan's Sibling.

SActuallyal Guides have been Composed on him. SActuallyal Television dramas or films have been Produced in his honor.

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